The outstanding dynamics of the worldwide poultry business: 50 years in retrospective. Half 1 – International egg manufacturing and commerce


In two papers the creator will analyse the event of poultry over the previous fifty years and doc the outstanding progress of world egg and poultry meat manufacturing in addition to the commerce with these commodities.

Hans-Wilhelm Windhorst – The creator is Prof. emeritus of the College of Vechta and Visiting Professor on the College of Veterinary Drugs Hannover, Germany

A private be aware
In 1970, I began my tutorial profession on the College of Vechta and instantly started to check the dynamics in intensive animal manufacturing at totally different spatial ranges. Whereas my empirical research initially handled Decrease Saxony, specifically the counties of Cloppenburg and Vechta, the main target quickly widened to EU member states and the USA. The shut contacts with main corporations, which produced and marketed tools for intense animal manufacturing, particularly for pig and poultry husbandry, and with globally lively breeder corporations gave me the chance to check world patterns and dynamics.”
Hans-Wilhelm Windhorst

A outstanding temporal and spatial dynamics
Between 1970 and 2020, world egg manufacturing elevated from 19.5 mill. t to 87.1 mill. t or by 347%. Desk 1 exhibits that from 1990 on the manufacturing volumes grew considerably sooner than within the earlier 20 years. Between 2010 and 2020 alone, it grew by nearly 23 mill. t. A better take a look at the event at continent stage reveals the extraordinary function, which Asia performed within the booming improvement (Desk 1, Determine 1). To absolutely the progress of 67.6 mill. t within the many years beneath evaluate, Asia contributed 73.3%, adopted by Central and South America with 13.0%. All different continents fell far behind. The relative progress in Africa with 4.5% was even greater than in Europe and North America. Till 1988, the egg manufacturing quantity in Europe was greater than in Asia, from then on the extraordinary progress in a number of Asian nations started, as shall be documented in a later a part of the article.
Determine 2 displays the drastic change within the spatial sample of world egg manufacturing. In 1970, European and North American nations contributed 65.1% to the worldwide manufacturing quantity, till 2020, their share fell to 21.8%. In distinction, Asia and Central and South America contributed solely 30.7% in 1970, however reached 74.1% in 2020. The far greater relative progress fee in Central and South America compared to Europe makes it seemingly that Europe might lose its second rank in the course of the present decade.

Appreciable modifications at nation stage
Over the previous fifty years, the composition and rating of the main egg producing nations modified significantly (Determine 3). Till 1985, the USA ranked in first place earlier than it was changed by China, which within the following years remained the unchallenged primary. A better take a look at the dynamics reveals some outstanding modifications. Between 1990 and 2020, India climbed from sixth to second place and surpassed the USA. Indonesia, which didn’t belong to the ten main nations till 2000 climbed to fourth place and elevated its egg manufacturing by 4.5 mill. t since 2000. Whereas in1970 six European nations (Germany, France, Un. Kingdom, Italy, Spain and Poland) belonged to the highest group, in 2020, solely France was left, rating in tenth place. A outstanding dynamical improvement confirmed additionally Brazil, Mexico and since 2010, Turkey. In distinction, Japan fell from third to seventh rank and the previous USSR, quantity two till 1990, confirmed a deep fall after the political and financial collapse. In 2020, the Russian Federation solely ranked as quantity eight.
An in depth take a look at the dynamics at nation stage will present the excessive regional focus in egg manufacturing and the rise or fall of particular nations.
Determine 4 paperwork the altering shares of the ten main nations in world egg manufacturing between 1970 and 2020. The bottom worth was reached in 1980 with 65.2%, the best in 2020 with 71.2%. Nonetheless, the figures don’t paint a transparent image of the extraordinarily excessive regional focus. In 1970, the 4 main nations contributed 49.1% to the worldwide manufacturing quantity. In 2000, after the dramatic progress of China’s manufacturing quantity, they shared 55.1%. In 2020, they contributed even 55.5%, a results of the speedy progress of Indonesia’s egg manufacturing.
A primary interim steadiness may be summarised as follows. International egg manufacturing greater than quadrupled between 1970 and 2020, reaching a quantity of 87.1 mill. t. Parallel to this outstanding enhance, a drastic change within the manufacturing centres occurred. Europe and North America misplaced their main positions to Asia and Central and South America, which in 2020 contributed nearly three quarters to the worldwide manufacturing quantity. Through the dynamical improvement, the composition and rating of the main nations modified significantly. Whereas in 1970, the USA and the USSR have been the main egg producing nations, China and India occupied the primary two ranks in 2020. In 1970, six European nations belonged to the highest ten group, not counting the USSR. In 2020, just one European nation remained with France in tenth place. This comparability graphically describes the drastic modifications within the spatial sample of world egg manufacturing.

Egg commerce quantity comparatively small
In distinction to poultry meat, the amount of traded shell eggs is relatively small. Within the many years beneath evaluate, solely between 1.8% (2000) and a couple of.8% (1980 and 2010) of the manufacturing was exported. The explanations for the low commerce quantity are the truth that shell eggs can’t be frozen und have a comparatively quick shelf life. A lot of the eggs are produced for home consumption. However, exports respectively imports are of a substantial financial significance for a number of nations. The next evaluation will doc the commerce patterns at continent and nation stage.
Desk 2 offers an summary of the event of egg exports and imports and the commerce steadiness at continent stage.
It’s apparent that Europe dominated egg commerce over the previous fifty years. It was not earlier than 2000 that Asia reached greater volumes in egg exports. In all different continents, egg commerce was solely of minor significance. Europe confirmed a commerce surplus over the entire time-period beneath evaluate, North America since 1980. Africa and Central and South America had a detrimental commerce steadiness in all many years, Asia except for 2010.

Appreciable fluctuations in egg exports at nation stage
Determine 5 exhibits the appreciable fluctuations within the composition and rating of the highest ten exporting nations. The Netherlands have after a number of years of competitors with Belgium the main egg exporting nation since 1975.
Belgium, primary till 1974 fell to rank 9 in 2020, China from rank three to rank ten. A number of nations solely belonged to the highest teams for a short while interval, corresponding to Denmark, Romania, Hungary, the UK, France, the USSR, Iran, Belarus or Syria. Different nations have been capable of attain a secure place among the many main exporting nations, such because the USA, Germany, Spain and Malaysia. In 1970, Poland performed an necessary function as an egg exporting nation as a member of COMECON (Council for Mutual Financial Help), however couldn’t keep its place after the collapse of the system. It was not earlier than 2010 that after the outstanding improvement of the poultry business as an EU member state, Poland turned one of many main egg exporters once more. The same improvement occurred in Turkey, which turned the second most necessary egg exporting nation in 2011 after years of a unprecedented dynamics in its poultry business.
The regional focus in egg exports was even greater than in manufacturing. Determine 6 paperwork that the focus elevated between 1970 and 1990 after which decreased within the following many years. In 1990, the ten prime ranked nations contributed 89.2% to the worldwide export quantity. In 2010, the bottom worth was reached with 74.5% earlier than it climbed to 78.5% once more in 2020. In 1990, the Netherlands contributed 50.9% to the worldwide egg exports. Till 2020, the nation’s share declined to solely 19.9% regardless of a rise within the export quantity. The rising manufacturing in Turkey, Poland, the USA, Uzbekistan and Malaysia challenges the dominating function of the Netherlands. 

Appreciable fluctuations additionally in egg imports at nation stage
The composition and rating of the ten main nations in egg imports fluctuated additionally significantly (Determine 7) except for Germany.
Value noting are the modifications within the rating of a number of EU member states within the many years beneath evaluate, corresponding to France, the UK, the Netherlands and Italy. In 1970, France ranked in third place then fell to rank ten in 1980, climbed to rank 5 respectively 4 in 1990 and 2000 earlier than it once more fell to rank 9 in 2020. The same dynamics confirmed the UK. Belgium and Singapore started to import eggs in 1990, in 2020 they ranked as quantity 4 respectively 5. Of explicit curiosity is the Netherlands. Whereas they resided as quantity eight in 1970, they turned the second largest egg importing nation in 2020. That is as a result of reality, that Dutch traders purchased respectively constructed giant egg farms in japanese Germany after the reunification of the nation. They transferred the eggs, which have been produced in these farms, to the Netherlands both to export or to additional course of them. This switch seems as imports for the Netherlands respectively exports for Germany within the FAO database. Till 1980, the USSR imported eggs from different COMECON nations, however stopped imports after the collapse of the political and financial system. In 2020, the Russian Federation started to import eggs once more to produce the inhabitants with animal proteins as a result of dramatic lower of pig meat manufacturing, which resulted from outbreaks of the African Swine Fever. Due to the conflict, Iraq’s egg business was severely hit in order that imports turned crucial to satisfy the home demand. From 2010 on, the nation ranked in second place among the many prime ten importing nations. When egg manufacturing started to get better, imports decreased from 2020 on. In 2020, the United Arab Emirates and S. Arabia imported giant quantities of eggs for home consumption and for additional exports to different nations on the Arabian Peninsula.
The regional focus in egg imports reached related values as in exports, it decreased, nevertheless, between 2010 and 2020, a results of the quick progress of imports by Russia and western Asian nations. Between 1970 and 1990, the primary three main nations shared over 50% within the world imports with a peak of 55.1% in 1980. Within the following many years, the regional focus was decrease and in 2020, the three prime nations solely imported 38.3% of the eggs, which have been traded globally (Determine 8).  Value noting is the altering share of Germany in world egg imports. Between 1970 and 1990, the nation imported between 32.0% and 39.5% of the eggs, which reached the worldwide market. From then on, the share fluctuated between 28.7% in 2010 and solely 17.7% in 2020. From 2010 to 2020, the import quantity fell by 100,000 t regardless of a rise of the per capita consumption. This was potential due to the appreciable progress of the stock by extra than10 mill. hens in that decade. 

Abstract and views
The previous evaluation confirmed the outstanding enhance in world egg manufacturing and the drastic spatial shifts. Which have been the decisive improvements respectively steering components behind the success story?
A primary innovation was the usage of the hybridisation know-how within the breeding of laying hens. It began in 1950 within the USA and was within the late Fifties transferred to Europe. Specialised breeder corporations started to market hatching eggs and chicks worldwide. A second innovation was the development of cages with automated feeding, water provide, egg assortment and manure dealing with. It diminished the mandatory labour enter drastically and allowed a lot bigger flocks. The very environment friendly housing system unfold parallel with the hybrid hen. A 3rd innovation was the event of vaccines towards the Newcastle Illness (1954) and Marek’s Illness (1972). They improved the well being standing of the laying hens and diminished the mortality charges to lower than 5%. A vital steering issue was the event of a compound feed with particular components, which improved the vitamin of the hens. This additionally contributed to the well being of the hens and elevated the laying fee significantly. The mixture of those components made it potential to supply giant quantities of eggs with a excessive dietary worth to an affordable value for the continually rising world inhabitants. Value noting is, that related types of the group of egg manufacturing developed worldwide: vertically built-in corporations. As no non secular boundaries prohibited the consumption of eggs, manufacturing and consumption grew worldwide and resulted in a spatial shift of the manufacturing facilities.
Whereas in 1970 European and North American nations contributed nearly two thirds to the worldwide manufacturing quantity, their share fell to 21.8% in 2020. In distinction, Asia and Central and South America contributed solely 30.7% in 1970, however reached 74.1% in 2020, China and India collectively shared 42.0%. Of the six European nations, which belonged to the highest ten group in 1970, just one remained in 2020. This graphically describes the drastic change within the world sample of egg manufacturing.
Though the amount of egg commerce solely accounted for a share of lower than three % in world egg manufacturing, it reached a substantial financial significance for the main exporting and importing nations. Europe was the dominating continent in egg commerce over the time-period which is analysed on this paper and it was not earlier than 1990 respectively 2020 that Asia reached a better share in exports and imports. Europe was additionally the one continent with a optimistic commerce steadiness over the previous fifty years. North America confirmed a commerce surplus from 1980 on and Asia solely lately.
On the flip of the century, new challenges started to confront the egg business. One is the animal welfare dialogue, which within the EU already led to a prohibition of typical cages from 2012 on and the introduction of latest housing methods, corresponding to enriched cages, flooring and free-range methods. It would within the coming 20 years additionally cut back the variety of hens stored in typical cages drastically as the event within the USA, Canada and New Zealand present. A second is the specter of the Avian Influenza virus, which has induced disastrous epidemics since 2015 and clearly turn into endemic in lots of nations. The success of the vaccines towards the Newcastle and Marek’s illnesses might present a means out of this existential risk.
Regardless of these challenges, egg manufacturing and the amount of egg commerce will additional enhance due to a rising demand in a number of threshold and growing nations. The spatial sample will stay secure. European and North American nations will lose shares in manufacturing however Europe will have the ability to keep its main place in egg commerce. Though a number of corporations and start-ups have been profitable within the manufacturing and sale of plant-based egg substitutes, they won’t be able to succeed in shares within the two-digit proportion earlier than 2030.

Information sources and strategies for additional studying
FAO database:

Windhorst, H.-W.: Die Industrialisierung der Agrarwirtschaft (The industrialization of agriculture). Ein Vergleich ablaufender Prozesse in den USA und der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Frankfurt a. M. 1989.

Windhorst, H.-W.: Altering patterns of world egg commerce: Dynamics at continent and nation stage intimately. In: Zootecnica worldwide 41 (2019), no. 11, p. 24-29.

Windhorst, H.-W.: The forgotten continent: Patterns and dynamics of the African egg business: Laying hen stock and egg manufacturing. In: Zootecnica worldwide 42 (2020), no. 9, p. 24-27.

Windhorst, H.-W.: The Champions League of the egg producing nations. In: Zootecnica worldwide 43 (2021), no. 1, p. 26-29.

Windhorst, H.-W.: The forgotten world: the egg business within the least developed nations. In: Zootecnica worldwide 43 (2021), no. 2, p. 22-25.

Windhorst, H.-W.: The dynamics of the U. S. egg business between 2010 and 2020. In: Zootecnica worldwide 43 (2021), no. 7/8, p. 22-25.

Windhorst, H.-W.: Patterns and dynamics of the EU poultry business: a standing report. Half 1: Laying hen husbandry, egg manufacturing and egg commerce. In: Zootecnica worldwide 43 (2021), no. 12, p. 22-26.

Windhorst, H.-W.: Patterns and dynamics of world egg and poultry meat commerce. Half 1: Egg commerce. In: Zootecnica worldwide 44 (2022), no. 2, p. 22-28.

Windhorst, H.-W.: A documentation and evaluation of the AI epidemic within the USA in 2022. In: Zootecnica Worldwide 45 (2023), no. 3, p. 8-17.


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