The precise genetic enhancements in layer hens are offering the market with a layer hen producing saleable dimension eggs faster than earlier than and increasing the manufacturing life. These two parameters are associated to the beginning of the manufacturing. feed consumption in the beginning of manufacturing assures egg dimension firstly of manufacturing and eggshell high quality on the finish.
A. Akpulat and X. Arbe Ugalde – H&N Worldwide, Cuxhaven, Germany
In the beginning of manufacturing, a second bone improvement occurs that may load the bones of the layer hens with calcium, that’s crucial within the calcification of the egg throughout manufacturing. The hybrid feed is a advice of find out how to method the layer hen feed in the beginning of manufacturing simply after the developer rearing feed section is completed. This hybrid feed is a mixture of ideas of rearing developer feed and manufacturing feed; it can stimulate feed consumption improvement and could have sufficient vitamins to help the physique and bone improvement taking place when the primary egg is produced and it may be utilized in any layer hen, brown or white. This feed is supposed to be safer and cheaper resolution than different conventional approaches of feeding layer hens and it helps the genetic potential of the birds.
The continual genetic enhancements are growing the primary industrial egg dimension produced and increasing the manufacturing lifetime of the layer hens worldwide. These enhancements are associated to what occurs at rearing and in the beginning of the manufacturing. Early research confirmed that whereas roughly 60 to 75% of the calcium destined for the shell comes straight from intestinal absorption, as much as 36% may very well be traced to bones. This bone supply is crucial since shell calcification happens in the course of the darkish interval, when the hen will not be consuming. Correct skeletal improvement is integral throughout pullet development, which has a primary interval of development in the course of the first 6 weeks of rearing and a second interval of development with lengthy bones reaching their most size and cortical bone reaching optimum thickness by week 22 of age. Upon activation of the reproductive axis and in preparation for the laying cycle, growing estradiol 17-beta (E2) concentrations shift the exercise of osteoblasts towards the formation of medullary bone, with cortical bone accumulation terminated earlier than lay. This medullary bone is deposited on the inside, endosteal floor of the cortex within the marrow cavities of lengthy bones, with the biggest reserve within the femur, adopted by the tibia. This second section of calcium deposition could be very dependent of the feed consumption in the beginning of manufacturing. Nutritionists have totally different approaches when the beginning of manufacturing occurs in layer hens and at present there’s a new possibility instructed by H&N Worldwide referred to as Hybrid Feed that goals to help the beginning of manufacturing higher than present and conventional approaches.
Idea of Hybrid Feed
The feed consumption improvement firstly of manufacturing will enable the fowl to have the right nutrient consumption. This feed goals to maintain growing the feed consumption because it occurs on the finish of rearing of the pullet and provide sufficient vitamins to help the bone improvement and the manufacturing of the primary egg. The numbers really useful within the Hybrid Feed needs to be tailored to the totally different uncooked materials info sources and to the obtainable uncooked supplies available in the market. Right here under an outline of the principals and proposals when growing a Hybrid Feed:
- Low vitality food regimen: the feed consumption of the layer hens is regulated by energy consumption. In the course of the developer section of the pullet the feed ought to focus in growing the feed consumption capability of the fowl, the metabolizable vitality content material of the Hybrid Feed needs to be just like the developer feed, round 2650-2750 kcal/kg, relying on the supply/s of data used to guage the vitality of the uncooked supplies. This method stimulates the feed consumption in the beginning of the manufacturing, and it’ll not damage the beginning of the manufacturing as a result of the manufacturing wants are nonetheless low, and the feed consumption and composition of the Hybrid Feed will present the required vitamins.
- Fibre content material of the food regimen: low density diets will likely be accomplished by fibre. There are alternative ways we are able to classify the kind of fibre; it was proven that with the generally used uncooked supplies in layer hen food regimen, the rise of the crude fibre has a optimistic impact in intestine improvement and subsequently the feed consumption capability of the birds.
- Amino acids stage: the amino acids stage is just like the layer section 1 advice. There will likely be sufficient amino acids for physique weigh development and egg manufacturing. The amino acids necessities aren’t most till week 22-23 of age because the flock is in full manufacturing (Desk 1). Nevertheless, as a result of low feed consumption it’s essential to have a excessive focus of the amino acids to make sure that there will likely be an sufficient provide.
- Calcium stage: the common hen requires 2.2 g of calcium for every eggshell formation. In the beginning of manufacturing, we could have a development of the bones and we could have some early productive hens. As per the bone improvement with 2-2.5% of calcium stage could be sufficient, nevertheless the early producing fowl want extra. Due to this fact, the advice is to formulate to three.8% Ca in browns and 4% in whites layer hens. What’s vital is the supply of calcium, to keep away from attainable feed refusal the coarse calcium carbonate needs to be the 60-70% of the overall calcium carbonate within the food regimen. The particle dimension of the coarse calcium carbonate needs to be 2-4 mm.
- Phosphorus stage: the phosphorus stage in poultry is said to the feed consumption and the expansion of the birds, crucial on this stage and in layer hens it’s associated to the calcium deposition within the bones. Due to this fact, the extent of obtainable phosphorus needs to be as excessive as within the layer section 1 advice, 0.44 % in browns and 0.46 % in whites.
- Excessive stage of salt: the salt is a uncooked materials associated to the feed consumption in birds. It has been proven that salt stimulates the water consumption and feed consumption. Due to this fact, it is strongly recommended to incorporate salt on the stage of 0.28%. It shouldn’t get replaced with a stage of sodium within the food regimen. The usage of sodium bicarbonate as uncooked materials within the layer diets might full the wants of sodium requirement within the food regimen nevertheless it doesn’t have the identical feed consumption stimulation impact because the salt. Due to this fact, it is going to be vital to make sure that we’ve got the extent of salt within the food regimen, and we don’t exceed the utmost of 0.34% of chloride as nutrient.
All this parameter will make the food regimen, however additionally it is in regards to the use on the farm.
Use of Hybrid Feed
There are challenges on the farm when getting correct information in the beginning of manufacturing. The lengthy switch interval from rearing to manufacturing home and the stress of the arrival make it tough to calculate the feed consumption in the beginning of manufacturing. As well as, the low manufacturing of the flock delays the egg assortment of the flock, subsequently we don’t have an correct information of the each day manufacturing.
The usage of Hybrid feed meant to be easy and straightforward to use, subsequently that is the really useful program:
- Home the pullets in manufacturing with Rearing Growth feed, so long as there wasn’t a earlier mild stimulation of the flock at rearing.
- Hybrid feed needs to be obtainable to the hens as quickly as the sunshine stimulation is given to the pullets.
- Hybrid feed will likely be supplied till 70% of manufacturing is achieved. This may occur across the week 21-22 of age and it is going to be straightforward to have an correct information of the % of manufacturing because the egg assortment is commonly finished on the farm at this age. The feed consumption by then will likely be round 95-100 grams/hen and even increased if the pullet had feed improvement.
- The following feed needs to be a 60-58 egg mass goal feed because the egg manufacturing will attain the height.
Benefits of Hybrid Feed
There are different approaches in the course of the onset interval like utilizing a pre-lay feed and/or a super-starter feed. Each approaches have shortcomings that Hybrid Feed doesn’t and has all some great benefits of a pre-lay or super-starter feed.
The pre-lay feed is supposed to be a transition feed between pullet and manufacturing, nevertheless the applying on the farm stage could be very tough and harmful. The pre-lay feed use is really useful to do by two methods, and each are tough to use:
- Use of pre-lay till 2-5% of manufacturing: this advice doesn’t think about that many farms don’t accumulate the eggs each day when the flock is beginning in manufacturing. The egg assortment is determined by the workload on the farm and the way the egg assortment belts appear to be; subsequently, a number of errors can occur. The pre-lay food regimen could be prolonged too lengthy and early producer hens can change into decalcified, cease the manufacturing and within the peak of manufacturing we could have peaks of manufacturing 2- 5% decrease than the usual.
- Use of pre-lay 0.5-1 kilogram per fowl: this advice forgets that there’s variation of the feed consumption on the pullets as a consequence of impact of climate modifications and feed improvement challenges throughout rearing. This advice could have identical end result because the earlier one and even we are able to have issues of eggshell high quality late in manufacturing.
One other method is utilizing a brilliant starter of lay after the developer feed or after the usage of the pre-lay. This tremendous starter of lay is very concentrated feed in vitamins and really costly; it’s designed for supplying all of the vitamins wanted at this crucial second. Nevertheless, it creates new challenges: the excessive vitality of this feed restricts the feed consumption improvement of the layers, subsequently, many instances the birds don’t have sufficient nutrient consumption on the peak of the manufacturing; it can result in manufacturing drop on the peak of the manufacturing when altering to a layer 1 food regimen due to lack of feed consumption; or it can push the farmer to make use of an costly feed till 40 weeks of age as a result of the layer hen doesn’t eat sufficient vitamins.
The hybrid is a confirmed different that skips the disadvantages of the opposite suggestions and has all the benefits (Desk 2). The use could be very pleasant for the farmers and it provides a more economical resolution for the beginning and peak of the manufacturing.
Expertise of Hybrid Feed
The usage of Hybrid Feed began in 2019 and it retains growing the acceptance as it’s examined by the egg producers. This feed was examined in Australian situations in caged brown birds and cage free brown birds; at the moment, we might see feed consumption improvement, efficiency of the birds was on requirements (Determine 1) with good eggshell high quality. There are extra optimistic experiences when utilizing Hybrid feed in brown layer markets like Colombia or Ecuador and in white markets like in USA and Canada.
In all these experiences utilizing the Hybrid feed we’ve got seen an enchancment of the feed consumption improvement and a sooner egg dimension improvement with out affecting the efficiency of the birds.
The usage of the Hybrid Feed is a brand new method to the beginning of manufacturing the place totally different challenges occur. This new method can substitute the earlier practices which might be tough to use at farm stage or are too expensive. The usage of the Hybrid Feed needs to be a part of the feed consumption improvement program the place first step begins on the develop section of the pullet. At this stage there needs to be a feed consumption capability improvement and later at begin the manufacturing Hybrid Feed would be the good match for having a bone improvement, sexual maturity development and first egg manufacturing. The Hybrid Feed brings options to a crucial a part of the egg manufacturing, the beginning of manufacturing, regardless of the breed.
References can be found on request
From the Proceedings of the Australian Poultry Science Symposium 2023