Diagnosing swine dysentery (Brachyspira hyodysenteriae) – Articles


Assays obtainable


  • Isolation on dwell organism
  • Pattern varieties: feces
  • Professionals:

    • Comparatively cheap
    • Presence of sturdy beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. is related to virulence

Figure 1. Petri dishes cultures on blood agar demonstrating alpha, beta, and gamma hemolysis. Source: Mibilehr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.ene 
Determine 1. Petri dishes cultures on blood agar demonstrating alpha, beta, and gamma hemolysis. Supply: Mibilehr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.ene 

Desk 1: Hyperlink between beta-hemolysis in Brachyspira spp. and illness

Brachyspira spp. Beta-hemolysis Illness
B. hyodysenteriae Sturdy Swine dysentery lesions
B. hampsonii Sturdy Swine dysentery lesions
B. suanatina Sturdy Swine dysentery lesions
B. pilosicoli Weak Spirochetal colitis
B. murdochii Weak Spirochetal colitis
B. intermedia Weak Spirochetal colitis
B. innocens Weak Non-pathogenic

  • Cons:

    • Extra delicate than PCR assay
    • Sluggish rising (as much as 10 days)
    • Require anaerobic tradition
    • Some much less virulent isolates might be present in herds with no scientific indicators or lesions

Antimicrobial susceptibility

  • Exams in vitro: capacity of dwell organism to develop beneath particular concentrations of various antimicrobials.
  • Pattern varieties: feces
  • Professionals:

    • Identification of susceptibility or resistance of particular isolate to widespread antimicrobials

  • Cons:

    • Requires a bacterial isolate
    • In vitro testing outcomes could also be barely totally different than in vivo outcomes
    • Some particular antimicrobials might not be examined or require separate, particular testing
    • Reasonable value
    • Takes 7 days to get outcomes


  • Evaluates the presence of tissue lesions which may assist the presence of illness
  • Pattern varieties: tissue
  • Professionals:

    • Histopathology lesions might be extremely suggestive if many spirochete micro organism close to intestinal lesions are discovered
    • Can detect gentle variations of the illness

  • Cons:

    • Want formalin-fixed intestinal tissues from not too long ago deceased animal
    • Lesions are much like a number of different ailments

Impression smear

  • Detects presence of micro organism
  • Pattern varieties: giant gut tissue, feces
  • Professionals:

    • Straightforward to do

      • Non-specific staining
      • Darkish-field microscopy

    • Presumptive prognosis might be made by detecting a lot of spirochetes
      Figure 2. Graphic demonstrating the spirochetal shape of Brachyspira spp. Source: Y_tambe. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en
      Determine 2. Graphic demonstrating the spirochetal form of Brachyspira spp. Supply: Y_tambe. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en
    • Can determine low vs average vs excessive quantities of micro organism current

  • Cons:

    • Requires considerably extra micro organism to be current than tradition or PCR
    • Unable to evaluate hemolytic functionality of isolates and thus can’t differentiate non-pathogenic from spirochetal colitis from swine dysentery

Polymerase chain response (PCR)

  • Detects presence of particular sequence of bacterial nucleic acid (DNA)
  • Pattern varieties: intestinal tissues, fecal swabs, feces
  • Professionals:

    • Excessive sensitivity
    • PCR quantification is related to presence of lesions
    • Reasonable value

      • Can typically do pooling of feces or tissue samples to decrease value whereas minimizing lack of sensitivity (particularly concerning scientific relevance).

  • Cons:

    • Excessive sensitivity – confirms presence of micro organism however not illness
    • Correct primers are wanted to detect and differentiate between Brachyspira spp

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

  • Detects presence of antibodies
  • Pattern varieties: serum
  • Professionals:

    • Can detect an infection at a herd stage
    • Antibodies can final a number of months
    • Serum IgG ranges correlate with length of scientific indicators

  • Cons:

    • Assays not available
    • Low sensitivity and low specificity

      • Used for herd detection and never particular person animal prognosis

    • Particular antibodies detected and the timing of detection could differ between the totally different assays
    • Usually antigens used might be particular to explicit species of Brachyspira
    • No correlations with antibody ranges and safety
    • Cross safety between Brachyspira spp is unknown

End result interpretation


  • Constructive: Micro organism current

    • Sturdy beta-hemolysis – swine dysentery
    • Weak hemolysis – spirochetal colitis or non-pathogenic

  • Adverse: Adverse or animal probably beforehand handled with antibiotics or too late into an infection

Antimicrobial susceptibility

  • Inclined: attainable sensible choice for therapy if antimicrobial can attain goal tissue
  • Resistant: choose totally different antimicrobial
  • MIC: MICs are finished to make sure the antimicrobial chosen achieves the listed MIC worth within the goal organ


  • Constructive: Spirochetes discovered close to lesions are presumptive prognosis
  • Adverse: No intestinal lesions

Impression smear

  • Quantity of spirochetes current:

    • Excessive: extremely suggestive of illness
    • Reasonable: variable interpretation
    • Low: questionable worth (may very well be non-pathogenic or persistent situation)
    • Not current: Animal probably beforehand handled with antibiotics or not vital contributor


  • Constructive: confirms bacterial presence
  • Adverse: Adverse or micro organism may have been missed if testing happens on animals handled with antibiotics or too late after an infection


  • Constructive: Previous publicity (>2-4 weeks) to vaccine or wildtype micro organism
  • Adverse:

    • Adverse to vaccine or wildtype micro organism
    • An infection too late to detect
    • Antibiotic use could suppress bacterial development and decrease immune response


Rising or ending pigs with scours (acute)

  • Acquire fecal samples from 10 or extra untreated scouring pigs and submit for tradition and PCR testing in swimming pools of 5.
  • Necropsy of 1-3 not too long ago useless or euthanize scouring pigs. Grossly evaluating giant gut (particularly cecum and spiral colon) place in formalin resolution for histopathology.

Continual historical past of swine dysentery prognosis however no scientific indicators famous

  • Acquire feces samples from 4-6 pens and submit for PCR testing
  • Acquire samples from 15-20 pigs at 14 and 18 weeks of age

    • Two approaches to accumulating:

      • Cross-section – gather from totally different age teams at one time (faster to acquire outcomes)
      • Longitudinal – gather from identical pigs over time (outcomes are extra correct)

    • Serum samples take a look at through ELISA


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